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Fresh Water System TipsDoulton®. . . The Fresh, Safe Alternative to Bottled Water, Reverse Osmosis, Distilled or UV Technologies!

Doulton Water Filtration Systems for Boats, Yachts, RV's, Motor coaches>>
(Featured in Trailer Life and MotorHome Magazines March 2004 issues)

Boats & RV's Fresh Water System Tips

And About Water in General - Some Basic Knowledge

A human being does need water-under the best of circumstances, human life continues for less than twelve days without water.

Getting water should not be a problem since over 75% of the earth's surface is covered with water. In fact, it has been calculated that if the earth's solid mass were a perfect sphere, water would surround the solid surface to a depth of about 8,000 feet.

Rio 2000 Multi Candle Filter Module

However, the human organism requires relatively pure water. The hydrologic cycle of evaporation, cloud formation, and precipitation literally rains down an average of just over half an inch of relatively pure water each week over the entire surface of the earth.

Water Quality

Drinking water quality is critically important to good health. Ideally, drinking water should be wholesome, physically attractive, free from all harmful organisms and have a chemical content, which will promote the health of the consumer.

Two standards have been described by the World Health Organization for drinking water. The first outlines the minimum acceptable for human consumption; the second outlines desirable maximum levels of organic and inorganic contamination. Many of the world's water sources fail to reach either standard. Even the most modem water treatment plants regularly add chlorine and aluminum sulfate to deal with other water contaminants. Moreover, many of today's water treatment plants are not modern and pump directly from the source with minimal testing to assure potability. Many of the distribution systems in use today were built years ago using materials and techniques considered substandard today.
Read most recent study on drinking water quality by Natural Resources Defense Council "What's on Tap? Grading Drinking Water in U.S. Cities"

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Chemical Contaminants

Since water approaches the alchemist's dream of a universal solvent, when the rain reaches the surface of the earth, it quickly dissolves and/or transports just about every material with which it comes in contact. While some of these materials may be beneficial, most are not useful in drinking water. Some are harmful, even toxic.

From 1993 to 1997, a leading US journal analyzed millions of records from the nation’s 170,000 regulated waterworks systems concluded: “Each day, millions of Americans turn on their taps and get water that exceeds legal limits for dangerous contaminants. Millions more get water that is not treated or tested properly, so there’s no telling if it’s clean.”

In short, the cumulative effects of the dissolved chemicals in the water from your tap may be harmful to you.

Microbial Contaminants

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that feed on digestive wastes and dead tissue. Some bacteria are beneficial but some have left a widespread destruction in past civilizations and continue to do so in many parts of the world. Disease causing bacteria are called pathogenic bacteria. These microbes are present in most all surface waters including shallow wells. Most common waterborne pathogenic bacteria are typhoid, cholera, shigella, E.coli, campylobacter, salmonella etc. Since most all waterworks systems and or dockside/ campgrounds operators add disinfectants such chlorine and or ammonia to the water these pathogens including waterborne viruses for most part are eliminated. Oocysts however, found in all surface water including pristine mountain streams are marginally affected by standard disinfection methods.

There are two varieties of the oocyst:

1.    A sphere of about 4.5 micron in diameter called Giardia Lamblia

2.    An ellipse of about 7 x 5 micron called Cryptosporidium (for comparison human hair measures 70-100 microns diameter).

The thick, leathery shelled oocyst act as a resting place or a “suitcase” for the infectious sporozoites, which emerges from the shell and infects the small intestines. Hence both cause illnesses Giardiasis (Beaver Fever) and Cryptosporidiosis, well-known illnesses to the medical as well the waterworks authorities.

Once introduced to water, the oocyst can survive for weeks, even at low temperatures. The organism has been found in humans as well in all domestic and wild animals.

The number of oocysts that must be ingested to cause infection in humans isn't known. Studies indicate that as few as ten and perhaps as many as 500 Oocysts are required to initiate infections in mammals. The infectious dose for humans is thought to be fewer than ten. These illnesses typically last 10 to 14 days. However, it may linger off and on for up to 30 days and infrequently can persist for extended periods. Children may be the most susceptible, particularly two-year-olds and under. A cure for Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis has not been found. Recovery depends on the patient's immune system. The disease can be fatal for those with severely weakened immune system.

According to the American Waterworks Association monthly Opflow , “Giardiasis is the most common disease-causing intestinal parasite in the United States”

The waterborne microbial contaminants are not just a dilemma from the past. Just a few short years ago in 1993, when Cryptosporidium oocyst infiltrated the Milwaukee’s waterworks system killed over 100 people and made over 400,000 sick. In 2001 Walkerton, Ontario water contaminated with E.coli bacteria killed several people and made many sick.

While chemical contaminants may cause concern, the most formidable threat for boat/ RV fresh water tanks are the pathogens, therefore the fresh water tank should contain free chlorine in order to control the bacterial proliferation.

In short, when sailing from one port to another, or traveling from one campground to the next always fill the fresh water tank to a water supply of a known quality. Consider use of Doulton Drinking Water Systems for Boats, Yachts, RV's and Motor coaches.

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Maintain Healthy Water for Enjoyable Outdoors

Ideally, treated water should be consumed immediately after treatment to prevent deterioration. Water that is stored in tanks at room temperatures – as in boats and campers, for this purpose – poses a special problem. Air, heat and “sloshing” of the water will quickly dissipate the remaining residual chlorine and revitalize any microorganisms that the reserve chlorine had inhibited but not killed. This hearty new culture will render the water with objectionable odors and perhaps unsafe, producing slimes and algae in the supply lines and tank.

To prevent this problems, the boat/ RV owners must, in effect, take over where the waterworks operators left off, meaning maintaining a safe system, treating the water that is stored in the fresh water tank and installing a water purification system.

To maintain a healthy water system is to follow the manufacturer instructions if available, in absence, the following three steps procedures will ensure a healthy water system.

  • Step one, cleaning the fresh water system

  1. Remove any and all filter cartridges except a UV tube and sleeve.
  2. Add four teaspoons (60 ml.) of liquid soap for every 10 gallons (40 L.) of your fresh water system capacity. If mobile go for a short ride as the “sloshing” will be an added bonus in the cleaning process.
  3. Run all taps including shower until all evidence of soap has been eliminated.
  4. Repeat this process one more time to ensure cleanliness.
  • Step two, disinfecting the system. (Disinfecting is not cleaning- it’s microbial elimination).

  1. Fill the fresh water tank halfway with clean water, add to 6 oz. (200 ml.) liquid chlorine bleach for every 10 gallons (40L.) tank capacity then top up the tank.
  2. Run all taps until presence of bleach solution is detected. Shut all taps and let the solution stand in the system for at least one hour.
  3. Open all taps and pump out the remaining solution.
  4. Now the entire system should be thoroughly flushed with clean water.
  • Step three, filling the fresh storage tank

  1. Simple rule of thumb is to never use de-chlorinating devices prior filling the fresh water tank.
  2. Use a 5 to 10 micron sediment filter to remove particles that may damage the pump impeller.
  3. If chlorine taste and odor is objectionable to you then install a POU carbon block filter (the most reliable and least expensive) for your drinking and cooking water and a shower filter for your bathing (preferably filter with KDF55 media which have large chlorine reduction capacity).
  4. If you are filling the tank with water of unknown quality (e.g. lake, river or pond water) do not rely on chlorination as a total "purifier", use absolute sub-micron filter such as Doulton, Katadyn etc. for your drinking and cooking needs. This precaution also apply for travelers to certain parts of Central and South America, south and southeast Asia, and most of the African continent.
  5. When done traveling and using any and or of the following POU device; remove and discard any carbon or pre-filter cartridges and RO membranes (bacteria growth prevention), clean UV lamp and sleeve and if using ceramic sub-micron filters dry for at least 24 hrs. and store them till the next use.
This clean and sanitize process should be used any time the fresh water taste and odor appears to be objectionable or you suspect it’s quality, as well before storage and when the craft is put in use. This simple process coupled with good, reliable drinking water system can help ensure clean, safe and wholesome water for all of your outdoor adventures.

Most Popular Water Purification Technologies for Domestic Drinking Use (FAQ)

* Doulton Ceramic Technology
* Activated Carbon (AC)
* Granulated Activated Carbon (GAC)
* Extruded Solid Carbon Block (CB)
* Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC)
* Reverse Osmosis (RO)
* Ultraviolet Radiation (UV)
* Ion Exchange (IEX)
* Distillation or Demineralization (DI)
*Absolute vs. Nominal Ratings

Now that the craft fresh water system is clean, disinfected and filled with fresh water, the health officials and craft manufacturers advise the use and maintain the “Super-chlorination/ de-chlorination” method while traveling. That is, adding chlorine in increased amounts to maintain minimum 3.0 parts per million (ppm) of residual chlorine and tested periodically with chlorine test kit. Now the fresh water system is microbiologically safe however, not the best means to a cool, refreshing glass of water, tea or coffee.

This is where the need for a de-chlorination device comes in. With so many to choose from which is the right one? Check out Doulton ceramic technology and other water treatment technologies.

Once again we wish to remind you that regardless of the type of filtration/purification device you choose, the water in a boat/ RV reservoir must always be chlorinated. Omitting this step will result in a jungle of slime and algae in the tank and lines, as well as a crowded community of bacteria. Worst of all is the stress and frustration of having a holiday ruined by illness while outdoors. By installing a Doulton water filter you are assured of chemical and bacteria free water while enjoying the great outdoor!